Kaarel Mänd

Kaarel Mänd

Research Fellow at the University of Tartu

ETIS profile


I am a Research Fellow in Earth sciences at the University of Tartu in Estonia. I am fascinated by changes in nutrient cycling and rock weathering that took place on the ancient Earth, drastically affecting its oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. To study these shifts, I utilize a variety of trace metal-based paleoenvironmental proxies preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks, especially those formed in the Palaeoproterozoic and Palaeozoic eras.

  • Trace metal and nutrient geochemistry
  • Redox conditions through Earth history
  • Weathering environments
  • Amber geochemistry
  • PhD in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 2021

    University of Alberta

  • MSc in Geology, 2016

    University of Tartu

  • BSc in Geology, 2013

    University of Tartu

Research interests

Trace metal and nutrient geochemistry
The weathering of trace metals and nutrients on land, their transport into the marine realm, and partitioning in sediments.
Redox through Earth history
Redox evolution of the ocean and atmosphere in the Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic, as well as its effects on the biosphere and global elemental cycles.
The generation of phosphate-rich minerals and sediments. The preservation of microbes in apatite and their role in its nucleation and growth.
Weathering environments
Weathering environments as sources of nutrients to the biosphere and archives of Earth’s atmospheric composition.
Amber geochemistry
The provenance of amber deposits as revealed through their stable isotope composition and spectral characteristics.


(2014). Microfossils in the world's oldest phosphorites. Fosfor – aegade algusest tänapäevani. Schola Geologica X. Estonian Naturalists' Society, Tartu [In Estonian].

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University of Alberta Graduate Fellowship
Ashley & Janet Cameron Graduate Scholarship
Graduate Student Teaching Award
Vega Graduate Scholarship
Harington Paleoenvironmental Scholarship
Steve and Elaine Antoniuk Graduate Scholarship in Arctic Research in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Doctoral Recruitment Scholarship
Kristjan Jaak scholarship programme “Doctoral Study Abroad”
National Contest for University Students
1st prize in Bio- and Environmental Science (undergraduate level)


Research Fellow
2020 – Present Tartu, Estonia
Teaching assistant
2018 – 2019 Edmonton, AB, Canada
Peer writing tutor
2018 – 2020 Edmonton, AB, Canada
Environmental Chemistry Specialist / Analyst
2016 – 2020 Tartu, Estonia
Laboratory Assistant / Data specialist
2013 – 2015 Tartu, Estonia

Talks & presentations

(2020). The cradle of complex life: Oxygen and eukaryotes 2 billion years ago. Schola Geologica XVI: Tihedalt koos elamine, Tartu, Estonia [in Estonian].

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(2015). Phosphatised microstructures in ancient and modern phosphorites. Scientific knowledge applied to the sustainable use of coastal upwelling ecosystems, Swakopmund, Namibia.

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(2014). Microfossils in the world's oldest phosphorites. Schola Geologica X: Fosfor – aegade algusest tänapäevani, Jäneda, Estonia [in Estonian].

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  • kaarel.mand@ut.ee
  • University of Tartu, Department of Geology, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu, Estonia